Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)


Educational Leadership


Dr. Michael Brooks


The purpose of this dissertation was to determine the effects by change over time between males versus females on reading achievement measured by the NWEA MAP Growth Reading 2-5 AR 2016 for ELPA21 Beginning and ELPA21 Intermediate levels for third- and fourth-grade students from a school district in Northwest Arkansas. This study is important because serving English learners, which is the fastest growing population of students, will help close the achievement gap and eliminate gender bias. This study is rooted in the five main hypotheses of Krashen’s theory of second language acquisition (Krashen, 1981, 1982, 2002). To address each of the four hypotheses, a 2 x 3 mixed factorial analysis of variance was conducted with a repeated measures on the last factor. An alpha level of .05 was set to test each null hypothesis. The results indicated that change over time was significant for all hypotheses. Therefore, regardless of grade level, ELPA21 level, or gender, students significantly increased reading achievement scores. In the third-grade ELPA21 Beginning level, females scored significantly higher than males, regardless of change over time. However, the results for Hypotheses 2-4 supported the notion that instructional strategies did not favor one gender. The results from this study are meaningful to educators and administrators who are concerned about providing effective supports and instructional strategies for English learners. Educators and policymakers need to be informed of the benefits of instructional methods and professional development available to best serve English learners.

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