Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)


Educational Leadership


Dr. Michael Brooks


This study examined the effects of a multi-tiered Response to Intervention (RTI) framework on literacy and math in an effort to determine the potential benefits in a secondary setting. Specifically, this study compared literacy and mathematics achievement for 9th, 10th, and 11th grade students, as measured by end-of-course exams, between a secondary school utilizing RTI and a secondary school not using RTI. Furthermore, the disaggregated test scores based on gender and socioeconomic status were analyzed from each school to determine the disparity in academic performance between groups of students, referred to as the “achievement gap”.

A quantitative, causal-comparative strategy was used in this 2 X 2 factorial design study. The independent variables for Hypotheses 1 and 3 included participation the RTI (participation versus non-participation) and gender (male versus female). For Hypotheses 2 and 4, the independent variables included participation in RTI and socioeconomic status (Regular versus Low). The dependent variable for Hypotheses 1 and 2 was literacy achievement, and the dependent variable for Hypotheses 3 and 4 was mathematics achievement. vi

The findings suggest that the RTI students did not have a statistically significant advantage over the non-RTI students. However, the achievement gap between low socioeconomic and regular students was significantly smaller in the RTI sample than in the non-RTI sample. Given the emphasis that federal legislation places on closing the achievement gap, these findings should be encouraging to districts implementing RTI.

In conclusion, the findings support the argument that secondary educators would benefit from additional studies of RTI models actively implemented in secondary schools in order to determine which ones are yielding measurable improvements in student achievement.

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