Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)


Educational Leadership


Dr. Kimberly Flowers


The purpose of this study was to determine if participation in the Spatial- Temporal (ST) Math program as an intervention increased students’ positive motivation and engagement in two Northwest Arkansas schools as measured by the Motivation Engagement Scale (MES), a self-reported survey. School A participated in ST Math, and School B did not participate in ST Math. Students from all tier levels of instruction composed the sample of 160 fourth-grade students (80 participating and 80 not participating) and 160 fifth-grade students (80 participating and 80 not participating). The gender was equally distributed (40 males and 40 females from each sample group). Both schools had similar demographics including race and socioeconomic status. A 2 x 2 factorial ANOVA was used to determine if a statistical difference existed. The results indicated there was no significant interaction between ST Math participation status and gender on positive student motivation and positive student engagement. No significance existed for Participation Status; however, the fourth-grade females indicated a statistical significance when analyzed separately.

Creative Commons License

All Rights Reserved

Copyright held by