Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)


Educational Leadership


Dr. Lynette Busceme


The purpose of this quantitative research study was to determine the effects of gender and Career and Technical Education (CTE) participation level on the mathematics and reading achievement as measured by the ACT Aspire for 10th-grade students and ACT subtest assessments for 11th-grade students in 2 5-A high schools in North Central Arkansas. While researching the effects of gender and CTE participation level, this scholar found no statistically significant difference between gender and CTE participation level on student achievement. This researcher explored the literature relating to the mathematic and reading achievement of males and females as well as whether they participated in CTE courses. During the analysis, I examined findings concerning the influence of gender on mathematics and reading achievement of students. Some literature included physical and hormonal influences, as well as differences in brain functions. However, the literature failed to specifically address the differences in mathematics and reading achievement in relation to CTE participation.

The findings of the study indicated that CTE participation level did not have a significant effect on student achievement scores. Similarly, Jacob (2017) stated that students who participate in CTE programs did not necessarily have strong academic outcomes. The study also revealed that gender did not have a significant effect on student achievement scores. Thus, neither variable indicated statistically significant effects. However, the results of the study do give insight into trends and potential areas for future study. Stone and Aliaga (2003) found that CTE students study more, which might lead to higher achievement levels due to increased study times. The results might indicate that students who do not participate in CTE and focus on an academic path might not be performing as well as first thought. Because the main effect of CTE participation level was not significant and because students in CTE tend to include students on a nonacademic track, the CTE participating group means might indicate that students performed better when engaged in meaningful, integrated learning, regardless of their academic background. As a group, the four or more CTE courses group performed as well as the three CTE courses or fewer group, which focused on a more academic path.

In light of the trends in CTE curriculum and student achievement over the past few decades, integration of mathematics and reading into CTE coursework has become an important part of the high school educational process. Those who support integrative learning believe it can improve student engagement, motivation, and retention because higher-order thinking skills are used through problem-solving, collaboration, creativity, and innovation (Caine & Caine, 1991). This research might provide some insight into the results of this practice.

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