Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)


Educational Leadership


Dr. Michael Brooks


The purpose of this dissertation was to conduct an independent study to determine the effectiveness of the READ 180 reading intervention program when implemented with middle and junior high school students with disabilities. To address the first and third hypotheses, gender (male versus female) and change over time (fall, mid-year, and at the end of the school year) served as the independent variables for sixth/seventh and eighth/ninth grade students with disabilities, respectively. For the second and fourth hypotheses, ethnicity (White versus all non-White students) and change over time served as the independent variables for sixth/seventh and eighth/ninth grade students with disabilities, respectively. The dependent variable for all four hypotheses was literacy achievement as measured by Lexile scores identified through the Scholastic Reading Inventory. A review of the literature identified the various aspects of READ 180 program, the history of the program, and overall reading comprehension. In addition, special and regular education students, males and females, ethnic subpopulations, and the perceptions of educators and students concerning READ 180 were reviewed.

This causal-comparative study used scores from sixth, seventh, eighth, and ninth grade special education students in an urban school district in Northwest Arkansas. the researcher used a casual-comparative design because she did not manipulate the independent variables. Six schools were identified to participate in the study, and each school identified sixth, seventh, eighth, and ninth graders based on disability category and ability to meet the intervention schedule. The six targeted secondary schools in this district were similar, with three middle schools with a grade range of sixth to seventh and three junior high schools serving eighth to ninth grades.

A 2 x 3 mixed-factorial ANOVA was used to analyze the data collected for each of the four hypotheses. The results of this study showed no significant interaction effects between students who participated in READ 180 by gender or ethnicity and change over time for Hypotheses 1-4. Regarding main effects, a statistically significant within subjects main effect for change over time existed for all four hypotheses. The main effect for gender in Hypotheses 1 and 3 was not significant. In contrast, the main effect for ethnicity was significant for Hypothesis 4, but not for Hypothesis 2. When analyzing the means, White students scored significantly higher compared to the non-White students; however, there was only a medium effect size for the result.

Many of the studies reviewed produced mixed results similar to this study. Differences in gender and ethnicity were identified throughout the various studies. Intensive reading intervention programs such as READ 180 do make effective instructional tools based on the significant change over time results, regardless of gender and ethnicity. All the studies were in agreement with one idea; reading intervention programs must be implemented with fidelity.

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